Neuromodulation encompasses a variable definition in both its entity and activity. It can include treatments that involve the stimulation of various nerves in the central nervous system, peripheral nervous system, autonomic nervous system, or deep cell nuclei of the brain that lead to the “modulation” of its activity. By definition, neuromodulation is a therapeutic alteration of activity either through stimulation or medication, both of which are introduced by implanted devices.

The idea and allure of neuromodulation stems from its initial direction of a reversible alteration of the nervous system. It is the idea of neural “modulation” as supposed to “ablative” or resective procedures. Treatments are reversible and have the ability to be turned off in most situations.

Implanted devices are usually neural stimulators and drug delivery devices such as pumps. The world of neuromodulation encompasses acute and chronic pain syndromes, movement disorders, dystonia and spasticity, as well as epilepsy. An emerging subset of neuromodulation includes neuroprosthetics for either nerve regeneration or rehab potential.

The neuromodulation community is based on a multidisciplinary approach that is diverse in its delivery. It involves physicians, industry, and basic science researchers. Clinicians involved in the procedures vary from neurosurgeons, anesthesiologists, pain specialists, and rehab physicians. Those involved in the multidisciplinary approach can include neurologists, psychiatrists, psychologists, primary care physicians, and physical therapy.

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